The principal characteristics of the graduater in higher educational institution are its competence and mobility. In this regard, the emphasis in academic disciplines and in the educational process carries to the process of cognition, the effectiveness of which depends entirely on the cognitive activity of the student. Success in achieving this goal depends not only because that is absorbed (content), but also from how it digested: either individually or collectively, in authoritarian or humanistic terms, based on attention, perception, memory, or for the whole personal potential through reproductive or active learning methods.
The educational process with the use of active learning methods in any University, is based on a set of common didactical principles of learning, and includes specific principles which offers the Russian scientist Alexander Balayev, there are:
1. Principle of the balance between the content and method of teaching taking into consideration the skills of students and theme of the lesson.
2. Principle of simulation. Model of the educational process appears curriculum. It reflects the goals and objectives, the means and methods of training, and occupation mode, asks questions and tasks that address the students during their training.
3. Principle of the input control. This principle includes the preparation of educational process according to the actual readiness of students identify their interests, establishment of the existence or the knowledge requirements. Input control gives you the ability to effectively clarify the content of the training course, to review selected training methods to determine the nature and volume of the individual work of students, to justify the relevance of learning and so cause the desire to learn.
4. Principle of accordance to the content and methods of teaching to the aims of teaching. For effectively accomplish the aims of the teacher training you must choose these types of learning activities that are best suited for the study of a specific topic or problem solving.
5. Principle of reality. This requires such organization of classes, where students will learn new skills and knowledge acquired through overcoming obstacles created by the production of problems.
6. Principle of "negative experience". In practice, however, allowed and error, so you need to teach a person to avoid mistakes. This task is very actual. In accordance with this principle, the learning process built on active methods of learning two new educational elements there are:
-the study, analysis and evaluation of errors in specific situations. The material for such lessons may be critical in the periodicals and the real facts from the life of the hole group;
-errors on the part of the student in the development of knowledge, skills and abilities.
7. Principle of "from the simple to the complex". Lesson plans and taking into account the increasing complexity of the learning material and methods applied in the study of primary sources: individual, collective formulation of conclusions and generalizations, etc.
8. Principle of continuous updating. One of the sources of cognitive activity is the novelty of the course material, the topic and the method of the teaching. Informative value of the educational process, i.e. the saturation of new, unknown, attracts the attention of students and to encourage the study of topics, mastering new ways and methods of training. But as far as learning the sharp their perception gradually begins to decrease. Students get used to the different methods, lose interest in them. In order to avoid this, the teacher need to be constantly updated with new elements to build classes, technique training.
For example, do not carry out analyses of two specific situations within a lesson, not to apply the same technical means of training for two consecutive lessons, visual tools, stands, charts, posters, charts, hang out in the audience at a time when they need them and so managed that way the learning process does not give off the interest and activity for students.
9. Principle of the organization of collective activity. Students often face the need to solve any tasks or decision-making in a group, collectively. There is the challenge of developing the students " ability for collective action.
The solution of this problem in the process of training should be carried out in stages. In the first phase the teacher identifies a group task differences and similarities in the approaches to the problem and its solution. On the second through the Organization of group work on the specific situation of students formed the need for joint activities, which contribute to the achievement of results. In the third phase, the business games are developed by skills work, analysis and problem solving, project design, etc. The organizing collective work in the classroom, a teacher must formulate the job in such a way that for every student, it was clear that execution is not possible without the cooperation and collaboration.
10. Principle of advanced training. This principle implies the mastery learning in a practical knowledge and ability to implement them in practice, develop the student"s self-confidence, provide high level of performance in future.
11. Principle of diagnosis. This principle involves the verification of the effectiveness study. For example, an analysis of independent work of students on educational situation will show whether the theme fits into the context of course, whether the chosen method of teaching, the students are guided in the studied problems, you can do that-or to change to the next lesson, etc.
12. Principle of economy of study time. Active learning methods allow you to reduce the time spent on the development of knowledge and skills. Since the acquisition of knowledge, mastering the practical methods of work and skills is carried out simultaneously in the same process, problem solving, analysis, or simulation game. While usually these two tasks are solved successively, at the outset, students acquire knowledge and develop skills in practical training and skills.
13. Principle of the output control. Typically, output control knowledge occurs after completion of the exam, tests, interviews, tests or essays with their further protection. But this form of testing is not in every case could set the quantity and quality of the acquired skills. For the output control successfully used active learning methods: a series of practice tests, problematic tasks and situations. They may be individual and group.
Active learning methods with skillful use to allow solveing of three educational-organizational objectives: 1) subordinate learning to impact teacher;
2) to ensure the active participation in the educational work as prepared by the students, and not trained;
3) to establish a continuous learning process.
Thus, on the basis of the foregoing, it can be noted that at the beginning of the 20th century, many scientists teachers and psychologists saw a need to develop new methods of teaching, to enhance students " learning activities. This issue remains relevant today. The achievement of the objectives of the problem and are actively developing training methods that help students to develop independence, to capture their thoughts, learn to highlight the main training material, develop it, and more. As practice shows, the use of active methods in university education is a prerequisite for the preparation of highly qualified specialists and leads to positive results following: they allow you to shape the knowledge and skills of students by engaging them in an active teaching and learning, curriculum information becomes personal knowledge of students.
Despite the diversity of approaches to classifying teaching methods, each of which is most efficient under certain conditions, the organization of the learning process, during realization of certain didactical functions.
Modern scientists distinguish the imitation methods of active learning, i.e. Forms of teaching in which teaching and cognitive activities built on simulated professional activities. All the rest are unimitation are all ways to enhance learning in lecture classes.
Simulation methods are divided into: gaming and non-feature.
The game include business games, game design, and so on, and the off-field-analysis of concrete situations, situational tasks, and others.
Active learning methods could be used at various stages of the training process:
1 phase -initial formation of knowledge. This can be problematic lecture, heuristic conversation, discussion, etc.
2 training phase-control of knowledge (fixing), can be used in methods such as shared thinking, testing, etc.
3 stage-building professional skills on the basis of knowledge and creativity, it is possible to use simulated learning game and non-game techniques.
The use of methods is not an end in itself. So the teacher any classification has practical meaning insofar as it helps implement a targeted selection of the appropriate method of study or a combination of them for specific teaching objectives. Therefore, this classification suggested that active learning methods for their use in the educational process.
The essence of active teaching methods aimed at building skills, is to ensure that students in those aspects of the decision, which they independently acquire knowledge and skills.
Demonstration and evolution of active teaching methods due to the fact that the training had not only mastering the students knowledge and skills, but also the development of creative and communicative abilities, formation of a personal approach to the emerging problem.
Active learning methods involve the use of techniques which aims primarily not on the teacher ready knowledge and its reproduction, and for independent students master knowledge in active cognitive activity.
Thus, active learning methods-this training activity. The active methods is the dialogical self communication, both between teacher and students and among students themselves. And in the process of dialogue to develop communication skills, ability to solve problems collectively, and most importantly it develops students. Active learning methods are aimed at engaging students for independent cognitive activity, call a personal interest in the decision of any cognitive tasks, ability to apply the knowledge acquired by students. To active methods is that in mastering knowledge and skills involved all mental processes (memory, imagination, etc.).
Lecturer in professional activity uses the classification and a group of methods that best help implement those didactic tasks that he puts before class. And active learning methods are one of the most effective ways to engage students in teaching and learning.
Teaching methods, which to a great extent depends on the effectiveness of training activities at the University, dozens of dedicated to fundamental research in the general theory of pedagogy, and in private teaching methods. However, in spite of the diversity of educational research, the problem of teaching methods is still relevant. So far, attempts to create a scientific teaching theorists on teaching methods and develop technological approaches to their application to the high school.
The modern higher education institution a unilateral process of cognition of students by the teacher becomes ineffective. The first task is to form their ability to produce knowledge creatively to navigate in the flow of scientific information. Shift towards formation of subject-subject relationship in education is also reflected in the definitions of learning as a pedagogical method.
In the educational process of University teaching methods perform the following functions: training (exercise practice learning objectives); Development (set the pace and level of development of students); educational (affect the results of education); promotion (acting as a means to encourage the teaching of); control and adjustment (diagnosis and management training).
Based on the results of the survey conducted in a number of universities, "Professor in students " looking" sympathies of most students, interested in an education on the side of teachers, applying advanced learning technologies. These results suggest that contemporary students did not want to be a passive party in the learning process. Pedagogy of cooperation at the present stage of formation and strengthening of higher education in Kazakhstan in our view - is the only correct way of development.
During the transition period of development of the State and society, rapid growth and the obsolescence of knowledge, a growing market demand for qualified specialists focus on teaching the body should draw not only on the understanding of innovative approaches and methods, but also on the transfer and adequate perception.
Strengthening independent cognitive activity of students through the search form of learning: discussions, business games, trainings, etc. make it possible to simulate particular situations, bringing theory to practice, which dramatically increases the value of acquired knowledge, but experience shows the majority of teachers are not ready for this kind of activity because of lack of information and methodological security. Many universities get out of this situation in their precincts by training specialists spread their expertise to colleagues, the proliferation of guidance, scientific publications, etc, but all these efforts are being eroded because of consistency and partially.
The use of active learning methods in the educational process of higher educational institution can give the desired result only when system approach in the classroom and in extracurricular activities. Pedagogical activity cannot be successful if there is no oncoming traffic of students, the interest in obtaining a marketable, high-quality education should be cultivated among students, and the general problem as pedagogical collective and progressive part of students. Appropriate and necessary interaction, integration and coordination of efforts with the teaching staff in the control and organization of academic and scientific activities, strengthen efficiency and successfulness of learning, enhance independent creative activity of students in the educational process.